An important finding from our analyses is a consistent pattern of

An important finding from our analyses is a consistent pattern of increasing estimated HIV incidence in men and women with heterosexual exposure (Fig. 1c and d, respectively), despite relatively inconclusive trends in HIV diagnoses (Fig. 2c and d, respectively). As far as can be ascertained using national surveillance data, the majority Venetoclax mw of reported diagnoses are either in people from a high HIV prevalence country, or in people with a partner from a high HIV prevalence country. However, a relatively large proportion of HIV infections among heterosexuals are estimated to be undiagnosed. Although these estimates are still much lower than those in other developed countries, combined

with increases in reported sexually transmissible learn more infections in the general population [5], these increases in estimated HIV incidence are a real concern. This raises the possibility of an accelerating heterosexually transmitted HIV epidemic in Australia, which has to date largely been avoided. This study is the first to use a modified back-projection method to reconstruct the HIV infection curves for selected populations by linking three data sources in the Australian surveillance database. Previously we investigated the Australian HIV epidemic through the development and analysis of a mathematical transmission model [10] which uses a mechanistic framework

to combine epidemiological, behavioural, biological and clinical data, and assess how factors interact and together contribute to the HIV incidence in Australian MSM. One advantage of the back-projection analyses used in this study is that they provide a completely independent

statistical method for estimating HIV incidence, the results of which can be compared with those obtained using mathematical transmission models. Both the statistical back-projection models and the epidemic mathematical models are based on a number of uncertain, but different, assumptions. The extent to which these very different approaches agree provides some corroboration of the results. The back-projection analyses PJ34 HCl do have limitations, chiefly in the assumptions required to generate a rate of progression from HIV infection to diagnosis. Although this rate of progression was allowed to vary over time, this was assumed to be in a fairly strictly increasing manner. This assumption is consistent with testing data for MSM in Australia, where the proportion tested each year has increased over time; in the absence of similar data for heterosexuals, this assumption is not unreasonable. Furthermore, although the relationship among newly acquired HIV infection, HIV diagnosis and AIDS diagnosis (until 1987) is to some extent exploited in generating the progression rate distribution, it is not possible for external information, for example rates of HIV testing, to be built into the models using the current formulation.

Not only does ECC affect the teeth, the consequences of this dise

Not only does ECC affect the teeth, the consequences of this disease may lead to other issues[9]. In the 1989 US National Health Interview Survey,

it was estimated that 51 million school hours were lost annually due to dental-related issues[10]. Bleomycin price Malnutrition[11], growth lag[12], and poor school performance[13] have also been associated with this disease progress. As dental caries is a complex and dynamic chronic disease that develops over a relatively long period of time, carious lesions detected in a 6-year-old child would have initiated during infancy and early preschool years[14]. Oral health services in Singapore’s current public healthcare system are primarily targeted towards school learn more children between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Current statistics, however, suggests the need to revisit the current oral healthcare delivery services with a focus on preschool children. Some of the well-documented factors implicated in the development of ECC include dietary habits (e.g., frequent between-meal snacks, on-demand or continuous feeding throughout the night), poor oral hygiene practices, fluoride exposure, oral microbial flora, defects in the enamel structure, presence of dental disease in parents and caregivers, demographics, and social factors[9]. The impact of these factors on the development of dental caries in very young Singaporean children, however, remains

PI-1840 uncertain. Singapore is unique in that it is one of the smallest countries in the world, with virtually 100% urbanization, and thus, majority of the population live in a relatively homogeneous physical environment. However, for the size of the country, it has diverse ethnicities, languages, cultures, and religions, as such; there may be ECC risk factors that are unique to the Singaporean population. The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the caries prevalence among preschool

children attending public medical clinics in Singapore and to identify associated risk factors in children with high dental caries activity. The study was conducted in 6 of 17 public health medical clinics (Bedok, Hougang, Jurong, Tampines, Woodlands, and Yishun) in Singapore. The selected clinics were situated in various parts of the island and were likely to serve areas that comprised family units with younger children. Children who visited the public health dental clinics were deliberately excluded from this study because many patients sought care at these dental clinics only when they had a dental problem. All patients who presented at the medical clinics for routine healthy child or immunization visits were invited to participate in the study. Study participants who had active dental decay were referred by the examining dentist to the School Dental Centre (a centralized government dental clinic that provides subsidized dental care to children) for treatment.

36  van de Laar TJW, Matthews, GV, Prins M, Danta M Acute hepati

36  van de Laar TJW, Matthews, GV, Prins M, Danta M. Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: an emerging sexually transmitted infection. AIDS 2012; 24: 1799–1812. 37  Health Protection Agency. Sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men in the UK: 2011 Report. Available at:

ABT-199 in vivo (accessed May 2013). 38  Lambers FA, Prins M, Thomas X et al. Alarming incidence of hepatitis C virus re-infection after treatment of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected MSM. AIDS 2011; 25: F21–F27. 39  Jones R, Brown D, Nelson M et al. Re-emergent hepatitis C viraemia after apparent clearance in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: reinfection or late recurrence? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53: 547–550 (and erratum J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 54: 112). 40  Martin TC, Martin NK, Hickman M et al. HCV reinfection incidence and treatment outcome among HIV-positive MSM in London. AIDS 2013 [Epub

ahead of print; PMID: 23736152]. 41  Thomson EC, Nastouli E, Main J et al. Delayed Selleckchem Epigenetic inhibitor anti-HCV antibody response in HIV-positive men acutely infected with HCV. AIDS 2009; 23: 89–93. 42  Suppiah V, Gaudieri S, Armstrong NJ et al. IL28B, HLA-C, and KIR variants additively predict response to therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a European cohort: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med 2011; 8: e1001092. 43  Tanaka Y, Nishida N, Sugiyama M et al. Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 1105–1109. 44  Rauch A, Kutalik Z, Descombes P et al. Genetic variation in IL28B is associated with chronic hepatitis C and treatment failure: a genome-wide association study. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 1338–1345. 45  Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature 2009; 461: Anidulafungin (LY303366) 798–801. 46  Pineda J, Caruz A, Rivero A et al. Prediction of response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin by IL28B gene variation in patients coinfected

with HIV and hepatitis C virus. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51: 788–795. 47  Nattermann J, Vogel M, Nischalke HD et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C. J Infect Dis 2011; 203: 595–601. 48  Rallon NI, Soriano V, Naggie S et al. IL28B gene polymorphisms and viral kinetics in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. AIDS 2011; 25: 1025–1033. 49  Medrano J, Neukam K, Rallon N et al. Modeling the probability of sustained virological response to therapy with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and HIV. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51: 1209–1216. 50  Holmes JA, Desmond PV, Thompson AJ.

g temperature, wind speed and direction) This data allows the a

g. temperature, wind speed and direction). This data allows the application of the online simulation tool to get an impression at what time the pollution will reach a certain place (e.g. town, beach or harbour) and how it spreads in the river and in the lagoon. If the likely pollutant ABT-263 molecular weight (e.g. E. coli, Enterococci, viruses) is known, a more realistic

simulation is possible. It can take into account e.g. the die-off rates and the decay of problematic organisms and the potential pollutant concentrations at certain places can be estimated. If the authority comes to the conclusion that a risk exists, the simulation results allow to organize an optimized monitoring and to inform local actors when and where to take what kind of water sample. After the laboratory analysis, the data is stored and those locations where water quality thresholds are exceeded automatically receive an

alert email. On a regular and event-driven basis, bathing water quality data and other relevant information are distributed via newsletter to a broader public. The preparation and distribution are supported by a software tool. Our brief phone survey among several end-users showed that improved information about water quality aspects is appreciated. The newsletter structure and content where positively evaluated by users and above 25% planned to further disseminate it. The system is still a prototype and not all functionality is fully in place yet. Among the benefits of such a system are a) a fast and systematic reaction in case of pollution events, b) NVP-BKM120 datasheet a spatially and temporal optimized monitoring, c) accelerated alerting and communication with subsequent reduced heath risk for the local population and tourists, d) an improved awareness, knowledge and transparency about water quality issues, and e) the support of beach profile development and evaluation according to Directive (2006/7/EC). The development of the system or of parts is pushed forward by IMGW PIB (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute). The web portal

can serve as an example. The system is still not able to serve as a reliable early-warning system for pollution entering with the river. The permanently recording sensor for particulate matter in the river does not sufficiently indicate microbial pollution. The online simulation tool in the Internet information system is a simplified version of the described GETM flow and GITM particle tracking model. It allows end-users to carry out simple but flexible and fast simulations e.g. after accidental release of microorganisms in the coastal area or after the observation of high concentrations at beaches. In a first step the end-user enters the wind situation (direction and speed). The information system contains pre-simulated and stored, steady state flow simulations for altogether 16 wind situations (combinations of direction and speed). The system uses the one that reflects the users demand best.

During the procedure, subjects were instructed to rinse their mou

During the procedure, subjects were instructed to rinse their mouth with water and chew a piece of sterilized rubber tourniquet to stimulate saliva, which was collected to yield

a total 1.0 mL. Samples were centrifuged Selleck Tofacitinib for 10 min at 15,000 × g at 4 °C, and the supernatants were immediately stored at −80 °C. The quantification of HBD-2 in saliva was done by an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay – ELISA (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ, USA) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The process was carried as follows: 100 μL (0.25 μg/mL) of specific antibody (anti-HBD-2) was added to the 96-well polystyrene ELISA plates and incubated overnight (4 °C); after being washed four times with PBST (PBS with 0.05% Tween-20), 300 μL of a blocking solution (1% BSA in PBST) was added to the wells and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Plates were then washed and 100 μL of the samples or standards were added into the respective see more wells in duplicate and these plates were incubated for 2 h. After washing,

100 μL of detection antibody (0.5 μg/mL) was applied to the wells and plates were incubated for 2 h. After this period, plates were washed and 100 μL of streptavidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (1:2000 in PBST) was added to the respective wells and incubated for 30 min. Colorimetric reactions were developed using o-phenylenediamine in the presence of 0.02% H2O2. Reaction was stopped using H2SO4 (2N) and measured by an ELISA reader (OD 490 nm). One-way analysis of variance was used to compare means among groups. In case of significant differences among groups, post hoc two-group comparisons were assessed with a Tukey–Kramer test. The prevalence of P. gingivalis among groups was analysed using Histone demethylase the chi-square test. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data are expressed as mean ± SE. Mean pocket depth (PD) and mean clinical attachment loss (CAL) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in subjects in the chronic periodontitis group than in those

in control. Clinical parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) improved by conventional periodontal treatment ( Table 1). Patients with chronic periodontitis showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in the mean PAR2 mRNA expression relative to the GAPDH RT-PCR signal. Moreover, conventional periodontal treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased PAR2 mRNA expression ( Fig. 1A). Although being significantly (p < 0.05) more prevalent in patients with chronic periodontitis than in those in the control group, the levels of P. gingivalis decreased after periodontal therapy (p < 0.0001) ( Fig. 1B). Levels of TNF-α, that were also higher (p < 0.01) in chronic periodontitis patients also decreased after periodontal therapy (p < 0.001) ( Fig. 2A).

The conserved strand-separating wedge is playing an important rol

The conserved strand-separating wedge is playing an important role as a sensor by presenting the deaminated bases to the recognition pocket (Figure 3c). Similar to DNA glycosylases, EndoV binds to the minor groove of the DNA, inducing distortions in the DNA helix, and flips the modified base into a specific recognition pocket. However, while DNA glycosylases remove the base itself by hydrolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond, EndoV incises the DNA backbone one base offset on the 3′ side of inosine using a separate catalytic

active site ( Figure 3d). EndoV binds strongly to the incised product as a result of this dual interface securing both ends of the incised DNA. The mechanisms described above leading to deaminated PF-562271 adenosines in DNA (spontaneous deamination, nitrosative stress, and misincorporation) also apply for RNA (Figure 2b). However, a major difference

exists: while inosine in DNA is regarded as damage, inosine in RNA is a normal and essential modification introduced by specific deaminases (Figure 2b). selleck chemical The bases of RNA are frequently co-transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally edited and the A-to-I conversion is probably the most common [30]. In tRNA, the deamination is catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on tRNA (ADAT) whereas in mRNA and non-coding RNA, the responsible enzymes are the related adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) [31] (Figure 4). Inosine in rRNA is not reported. In tRNA, inosine is found in the wobble 34 position and is an absolute requirement for protein translation (Figure 4a). The relaxed base pairing properties of inosine allow a single tRNA to decode multiple codons. In bacteria, only tRNAArg has inosine, whereas in mammals eight different Methocarbamol tRNAs have inosine at the wobble position [32]. A-to-I editing of mRNA may result in recoding of the genetic information or generation/deletion of splice sites and stop codons, both contributing to protein diversity (Figure 4b). In fact, it is believed that A-to-I editing has been fundamental for human development

and cognitive complexity. Actually, most ADAR substrates are transcripts for neuronal transporters and channel proteins in the brain and the editing is critical for normal brain development and function [33]. Also, ADAR enzymes are mostly found in higher eukaryotes [34]. Despite the initial expectations, only a limited number of genes (∼60) are subjected to site selective A-to-I editing within their coding sequences. It appears that the vast majority of editing (∼90%) occurs in non-coding regions that contain repetitive elements such as Alus and LINEs, and in 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) [35 and 36]. High-throughput RNA sequencing have enabled transcriptome-wide identification of A-to-I edited sites and interestingly, about 15 000 edited sites is mapped in about 2000 different genes [37].

Both start with receptor cells on the animal’s antenna In bees,

Both start with receptor cells on the animal’s antenna. In bees, receptor cell axons enter the antennal lobe forming four tracts, T1-T4, with T1 and T3 innervating approx. 70 glomeruli each, and the other two approx. 7 glomeruli each. In the antennal Selleckchem PD0332991 lobe, T1 glomeruli and T2-T4 glomeruli form two separate sublobes. From each of these two sublobes, two distinct tracts of projection neurons

leave the antennal lobe toward higher processing centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral protocerebrum (Abel et al., 2001 and Kirschner et al., 2006). One tract travels along the midline (the medial antenno-protocerebral tract, mAPT, innervated by T2-T4), while the other tract travels laterally (lAPT, innervated by T1). The functional implication of these two subsystems for olfactory processing remains unclear to date (Galizia and Rossler, 2010). Optical imaging,

and in particular calcium imaging, has increased our possibilities to record odor-evoked glomerular activity patterns (Friedrich and Korsching, 1997 and Joerges et al., 1997). Using wide-field microscopy, and a calcium-sensitive reporter such as Calcium-Green, Fura or genetically encoded probes, it is possible to simultaneously record neurons across wide areas of the brain surface. Small brains, such as those of insects, are particularly suitable because their limited size allows measuring combinatorial activity from substantial parts of their olfactory system simultaneously. The honeybee antennal lobe has a diameter of approx. 250 μm, and with a 20× objective MRIP the entire antennal lobe surface can be recorded in an in vivo preparation. In the honeybee, olfactory glomeruli are arranged in a single layer around a central coarse neuropil, so that the interference from deeper brain layers on odor-evoked signals is small. Moreover, this neural structure forms a separate lobe, and is attached to the rest of the brain on only a small fraction of its surface, potentially

allowing direct access to many glomeruli from multiple angles. However, when opening the head capsule of the animal, optical access is drastically reduced to about 30–40 glomeruli on the frontal part of the antennal lobe. Almost all the glomeruli that are directly visible in this standard brain preparation belong to the lAPT system ( Galizia et al., 1999b and Sachse et al., 1999). As a result, although the combinatorial nature of odor-coding in lAPT glomeruli has been studied in great detail, knowledge about the mAPT remains weak, deriving mostly from single cell recordings ( Krofczik et al., 2008 and Müller et al., 2002). Does the mAPT code for the same odors as the lAPT? Do the two systems differ in the dynamics of their responses, or in the combinatorial logic of odor-coding? To answer these questions, a technique that allows recording from a large number of mAPT glomeruli is necessary. In this study, we therefore developed a new technique to image concealed brain surfaces.

The database also provided information for the Grainger and Garci

The database also provided information for the Grainger and Garcia [51] study, which developed a methodology to analyze the major phases (i.e.

undeveloped, NVP-BGJ398 in vitro developing, mature and senescent phases) of fishery developments on the basis of capture data. The same approach has been later applied to analyze development phases at the national (Cuba [52]) and regional levels (Eastern Central Atlantic [53]). According to their biological characteristics, the “oceanic” species for which statistics are available in the FAO database were identified and further subdivided into “epipelagic” and “deep-water” [54]. This species classification was used to quantify high seas catches and their trends [34], [49], [55] and [56], although coincidence between catches in the high seas and those beyond the continental shelf is coarse in some areas.

It is interesting to note that the number of species items classified as deep-water more than doubled between the 1999 and 2006 releases of the database, probably reflecting mostly a greater global attention to monitoring deep-water fishing rather than increased fishing activities. Citation analyses performed for FishBase [57] and the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries [58] reported that both had been cited more than 500 times, enrolling them to the restricted group of highly-cited items. JAK inhibitor In fact, it was estimated that among the 20 million items published between 1900 and 2005 that have been cited at least once, only about 21,400 were cited more than 500 times representing 0.11% of the total [59]. Similar research conducted for the FAO capture database found out that also this item should be added to the exclusive club. The FAO capture database is cited in an array of different manners Fossariinae and the bibliographic database Scopus 22 was searched using 15 word combinations referring to ‘FAO capture database’, ‘FAO Yearbook of Fishery Statistics’, ‘Fishstat software’, etc. After removing duplicates and citations referring to the FAO aquaculture or fishery trade databases, it resulted

that a total of 622 articles from refereed journals cited the FAO capture database between 1996 and mid-June 2011. However, the number of scientific papers that have been analyzing data extracted from the FAO capture database is higher, as it was noted that several articles either largely based on data from the database (e.g. [50], [60], [61] and [62]) or discussing its content (e.g. [17], [18] and [63]) did not cite it in the references section. Analysis of citations showed that a peak was reached in 2009 and that a 40% average of the articles are by authors affiliated to European institutions followed by Asian and North American authors (Fig. 4). The number of citations in 2010 plus those already available for 2011 exceeded that for 2009 in all continents with the exception of North America.

, 2010) The finding that BCL-XL was not capable of inhibiting ac

, 2010). The finding that BCL-XL was not capable of inhibiting acidification of lysosomes, but could inhibit their permeabilization, may indicate a lysosomal inhibition site of BCL-XL. By demonstrating that Cd causes a programmed form of cell death with a necrotic AZD6244 endpoint the present study may add to the pathobiological understanding of Cd-induced death signalling, and

the pro-inflammatory, and pro-atherosclerotic activity of Cd in vivo (Knoflach et al., 2011). This project was supported by the Austrian National Bank [project 14590 to B.M.]. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. “
“Aristolochic acid (AA), a chemical found in Aristolochia and Asarum species, is present in a number of botanical products sold as “traditional medicines”, dietary supplements or weight-loss remedies. AA is a ∼1:1 mixture of two forms, aristolochic acid I (AAI) and aristolochic acid II (AAII), of which the first has higher nephrotoxicity in cellular and animal models ( Shibutani et al., 2007). AA is a rodent carcinogen and was responsible for aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy (AAN) among women under slimming regime in Belgium and China ( Arlt et al., 2002). Moreover, it is one of the possible causative agents of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) ( Stefanovic et al., 2006). The Doxorubicin chemical structure major targets of AA-induced toxicity are kidneys

and urothelial tracts ( Stiborova et al., 2008). AA was reported to be among the most potent 2% of

known carcinogens and herbal remedies contaminated with Aristolochia were classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ( Arlt et al., 2002 and IARC, 2002). BEN development is also closely correlated with the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA), one old of the mycotoxins produced by members of Aspergillus and Penicillium family ( O’Brien and Dietrich, 2005 and Pfohl-Leszkowicz and Manderville, 2007). The presence of this compound is proven for plant-derived products such as cereals, coffee and bread. Still, it was also detected in cocoa, nuts, dried vine fruits, grains as well as in wine. Pork and food products from pigs fed with contaminated grain may also be a source of OTA, what is linked to the high stability of OTA and its long half-life in blood and tissues ( International Programme on Chemical Safety, 1990). The dose of OTA may vary in food from 0.5 mg/kg in baby foods to 10 mg/kg in soluble coffee and dried vine fruits ( Coronel et al., 2010) and the tolerable intake was estimated by European Commission (1997) at 5 ng/kg body weight/day. The data from OTA presence in plasma indicated the geographical differences, being the lowest in Japanese people and the highest in Argentina. The assessed level of OTA in plasma in healthy people was 0.15 (min), 0.45 (mean) and 9.15 (max) ng OTA/ml plasma ( Coronel et al., 2010).

(2001) These results support the notion that toxins venoms share

(2001). These results support the notion that toxins venoms share similar epitopes for dermonecrotic toxins ( Guilherme et al., 2001). In these assays, the neutralization of edema-inducing activity by PLlv afforded lower protection in immunized rabbits. Finally, we investigated the neutralization

of sphingomyelinase activity by commercial sera produced in Brazil and Peru. An in vitro neutralization assay was performed by pre-incubating PLlv and BLlv with different antivenom dilutions from CPPI and INS. The applied doses were 0.125 μg of PLlv and 0.250 μg of BLlv, once these values showed similar sphingomyelinase activity. Both antivenoms neutralized about MS-275 ic50 100% of both venoms activities in the dilution 1:100, and more than

80% in the dilution 1:500 ( Fig. 6A and B). On the other hand, with the 1:2500 dilution, only the CPPI serum partially neutralize both venom (30% for BLlv and 80% for PLlv, respectively). Previously, Olvera et al. (2006), had suggested designing a polyvalent antivenom and our results confirm that two different and interspecific SB203580 molecular weight commercial antivenoms are able to cross neutralize venoms from different species, supporting the idea of developing a “pan-American” or global loxoscelic antivenom ( Barbaro et al., 2005; Olvera et al., 2006). Fig. 7 In conclusion, our data suggest, based on the in vivo lethal effect and in vitro sphingomyelinase activity, that venom of Loxosceles laeta

from Peru is more toxic than BLlv and that antivenom antibodies raised in immunized rabbits or commercial sera produced in Brazil and in Peru are efficient in neutralizing the toxic activity of both venoms. We would like to express gratitude to Dr. Marcelo Santoro for his critical review of this manuscript. This research was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brazil – CAPES (Toxinologia no. 23038000825/2011-63), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil much (FAPEMIG) and by funds of the INCTTOX Program of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Brazil (CNPq). The authors gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of the Instituto Nacional de Salud, Peru. “
“Mygalomorphs (Arthropoda, Chelicerata, Arachnida, Araneae, Mygalomorphae) comprise tarantulas and trap-door spiders, which are distributed in 15 families, 300 genera and approximately 2500 species (Hedin and Bond, 2006). Distinctive characteristics of mygalomorphs include apparent external abdominal segmentation, longitudinal articulation of chelicera and the presence of laminar lungs (Barnes, 1993). Tarantulas are included in the family Theraphosidae, which is represented by around 900 species divided in 112 genera (Platnick, 2011).