In this case, it is expected that the enhancement of efflux of in

In this case, it is expected that the enhancement of efflux of intracellular dipeptides improves growth deficiency of strain Δpeps. Overexpression of bcr, norE, ydeE and yeeO partially PLX4032 cost restored the growth defect (Fig. 2b). This observation suggested that intracellular accumulation of dipeptides inhibited cell growth and that dipeptide transporter candidates excreted intracellular dipeptides into the medium.

We assumed that transformants overexpressing dipeptide transporter candidates excreted considerable amounts of Ala-Gln into the medium and had decreased intracellular Ala-Gln levels. Strain Δpeps overexpressing each of the dipeptide transporter candidate was cultivated in the medium supplemented with 50 mM Ala-Gln, and after that the intracellular Ala-Gln levels were compared. The intracellular Ala-Gln levels of strain Δpeps overexpressing each of dipeptide transporter candidates were reduced to between 2% and 83% of strain Δpeps harboring the vector only (Fig. 3). This result suggested PD0332991 concentration that these genes might be involved in Ala-Gln export into the medium. The most drastic reduction was observed with the strain overexpressing ydeE. In order to confirm whether the four multidrug-efflux transporter genes selected by dipeptides resistance is involved in Ala-Gln production

in E. coli, each plasmid expressing a dipeptide transporter candidate or the control vector pSTV28 was introduced into strain JKYPQ3 harboring pPE167, which carries the gene (lal) coding for Lal and the gene (ald) coding for Ald from B. subtilis under the control of uspA promoter. The transformed cells were grown in TT medium, and the amount of Ala-Gln was analyzed. Strain JKYPQ3/pPE167 harboring pSydeE did not grow in TT medium (data not shown). This result suggested that the excessive Resveratrol expression of ydeE affected the growth of Ala-Gln-producing strain. Therefore, ydeE and its native promoter were cloned into the reverse direction

of lac promoter of pSTV28 in order to reduce ydeE expression. As shown in Fig. 4a, strain JKYPQ3/pPE167 overexpressing bcr, norE, ydeE or yeeO showed a 1.4–3.0-fold increase in Ala-Gln production. As previously shown (Tabata et al., 2005), Lal accepts branched-chain amino acids as C-terminal residues and forms Ala-BCAA. The effects of overexpression of dipeptide transporter candidate genes on l-alanyl-l-valine (Ala-Val), l-alanyl-l-leucine (Ala-Leu) and l-alanyl-l-isoleucine (Ala-Ile) production were examined. Each plasmid expressing a dipeptide transporter candidate or the control vector pSTV28 was introduced into strain JKYP9 harboring pPE167. The transformed cells were grown in TT medium supplemented with the substrate l-branched chain amino acids, and the amounts of Ala-BCAA were analyzed. In these production systems, l-alanine was fermented from glucose and l-branched chain amino acids were imported from the medium and these two amino acids were ligated by Lal. As shown in Fig.

Table 4 also demonstrates the effect of the use of HAART on semin

Table 4 also demonstrates the effect of the use of HAART on seminal parameters, with a significant drop being found in total sperm count (172.2 vs. 147.5 million; P=0.05), progressive motility (48.8 vs. 44.4%; P=0.01), post-preparation concentration (15.1 vs. 12.7 million; P=0.006) and post-preparation TMCI (7.1 vs. 6.1 million; P=0.002)

and a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm (76.7 vs. 74.5%; P=0.01) in samples from men on HAART. This effect of HAART on semen parameters was supported by the negative correlation demonstrated in Table 3 between duration check details of use and concentration (r=−0.16, P=0.02), total count (r=−0.12, P=0.09) and post-preparation progressive motility (r=−0.19, P=0.01). Paradoxically, there was a positive correlation (r=0.17, P=0.02) between duration of use and pre-preparation progressive motility. Similarly, there was a negative correlation between duration of HIV disease and concentration (r=−0.14, P=0.01) and post-preparation progressive motility (r=−0.15, P=0.02) and a paradoxical positive correlation with

this website pre-preparation progressive motility (r=0.12, P=0.05). A decade as the UK tertiary referral centre for the infertility care of HIV-positive men allows us to present data demonstrating a negative effect of falling CD4 cell count and the use of HAART on semen parameters; this is the only study to demonstrate such effects on post-wash sperm available for treatment. The first study to present data on sperm characteristics in HIV-positive men found no difference in any parameter between their small (n=24) cohort and a control group of HIV-negative men providing semen for general fertility investigation [11]. However, more recently, four larger studies have demonstrated ADAMTS5 a consistent significant impairment in semen parameters compared with control groups. In one study of 250 men [15], significantly lower ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm motility were

demonstrated compared with a small control group of ‘fertile’ HIV-negative men. In a clinically homogeneous group of 189 HIV-positive men free of AIDS symptoms and who were therefore well enough to be considered for fertility treatment, a significant decrease in ejaculate volume and total sperm count and a detrimental shift in motility from type ‘a’ to type ‘b’ was demonstrated compared with healthy partners of women undergoing IVF for tubal subfertility [14]. Compared with a similar control group, and thus avoiding any bias from the use of sperm from men of proven fertility, we previously reported significant declines in ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, progressive sperm motility and sperm morphology in 104 HIV-positive men [18]. Most recently, semen volume, total sperm count, sperm motility and sperm morphology were found to be impaired in 190 HIV-positive men compared with fertile controls [26].

The reduced in vivo virulence observed from B weihenstephanensis

The reduced in vivo virulence observed from B. weihenstephanensis strains Ibrutinib solubility dmso at 37 °C may be linked to several causes. It could rely on bacterial growth potential and adaptability over a particular temperature range. However, the temperatures used here permit growth of both species, as we demonstrated by broth and agar culturing and by plate counts of bacteria from infected larvae at 37 °C, although

B. weihenstephanensis strains are generally slightly affected at 37 °C (Stenfors Arnesen, 2005; this study; results not shown). More importantly, the difference may rely on differential distribution or production/stability of virulence factors important for G. mellonella infection. Some of the mammalian virulence factors of B. cereus have also been identified to be important for virulence towards G. mellonella, including the regulator PlcR (Salamitou et al., 2000), the metalloproteases InhA2 and InhA3

(Fedhila et al., 2002; Guillemet et al., 2010), the flagellar protein FlhA (Bouillaut et al., 2005) and the iron acquisition molecule IlsA (Daou et al., 2009). The PlcR-regulated pore-forming cytotoxins Nhe, Hbl and CytK are involved in diarrhoeal foodborne disease and perhaps also in other infections (Kramer & Gilbert, 1989; Drobniewski, 1993; Ehling-Schulz et al., 2005a; Stenfors Arnesen et al., 2008). Bacillus weihenstephanensis does not seem to differ from B. cereus in the distribution of the genetic apparatus for the cytotoxins, PlcR or its quorum-sensing molecule PapR (Stenfors et al., 2002; Stenfors Arnesen, 2005; Thorsen et al., 2006, 2009). Earlier reports showed the importance of the PlcR regulon in cytotoxicity (Salamitou et al., 2000), and notably suggested Nhe to be the most important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity and possibly for diarrhoeal disease (Dietrich et al., 2005; Moravek et al., 2006). Furthermore, a B. cereus

strain (NVH 391-98) producing high levels of CytK toxin but low levels of Nhe (Fagerlund et al., 2007) was not virulent to G. mellonella infected orally (Fedhila et al., 2010). The combined low insect virulence and low Nhe production described in this strain strengthens the possibility D-malate dehydrogenase of Nhe being of importance for insect virulence. Temperature-affected regulation of the production of virulence factors may be altered in psychrotolerant strains as an adaptation to a different niche. This is supported by previous work showing that at 32 °C, the B. cereus strains were all highly cytotoxic, while the B. weihenstephanensis strains were generally less cytotoxic (Stenfors et al., 2002). At 12 °C, cytotoxicity was high for both species; however, a large variation was seen between experiments for B. cereus strains, while B. weihenstephanensis strains were stably cytotoxic (Stenfors Arnesen, 2005).

0 (Bendtsen et al, 2005a) The Grand average of hydropathy score

0 (Bendtsen et al., 2005a). The Grand average of hydropathy score, GRAVY, was calculated using the xtalpred server ( Predictions of transmembrane helices were performed using the tmhmm 2.0 server (Krogh et al., 2001). To identify proteins associated with

the membrane fraction, H. seropedicae cells AZD6244 were disrupted and the membrane-associated proteins separated from the soluble proteins by ultracentrifugation. Membrane extracts were subjected to 2D-PAGE and 109 protein spots present in the gel (Fig. 1) were subjected to PMF analysis in comparison with the partial genome data from H. seropedicae ( We identified 79 spots representing 45 different proteins; 12 of these have not been previously identified in the H. seropedicae 2D reference map, including five hypothetical proteins of unknown function (Table 1). Several computational methods were used to determine whether the identified proteins were functionally related to the cell membrane (Table 1). Two proteins gave a positive hit for transmembrane helices using tmhmm 2.0 software (Table 1). The low representation of integral membrane proteins found in the gel seems to be a common drawback of the 2D gel technique (Santoni et al., 2000). The hydrophobic

nature does not favor the isoelectrofocusing of these proteins. Furthermore, the hydrophobic domains are Tobramycin usually not properly digested with trypsin, compromising the efficiency of the PMF analysis. We noted that 20 of 45 identified proteins were predicted to be membrane-associated by at least one of the computational methods used. An inspection of the remaining 25 proteins indicated that 11 are known to be functionally related to membrane proteins, including proteins related to the electron transport chain, flagella biosynthesis, chemotaxis, ATP synthase, cell envelope biogenesis and PII proteins. Seven of the remaining 14 proteins were previously described as the top

30 most abundant proteins in the H. seropedicae 2D reference map (Chaves et al., 2007). Highly abundant soluble proteins may be trapped inside the membrane vesicles formed during cellular disruption, and hence frequently contaminate membrane preparations (Santoni et al., 2000). We have no explanation for seven of the proteins present in the membrane extract; of these, three are hypothetical with unknown function and thus might be functionally associated with the cell membrane. Interestingly, we identified three spots matching the ammonium assimilatory enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) in the membrane fraction (Fig. 1, Table 1). Analysis of cellular fractions using an anti-GS antibody revealed that the enzyme is found in both cytoplasm and membrane fractions and that its distribution is not affected by an ammonium shock (Supporting Information, Fig. S1).

4%) did not restart HAART, but did not die, with evidence of furt

4%) did not restart HAART, but did not die, with evidence of further programme

contact by later VL or CD4 test result; 63 (10.1%) did not restart ART, but did not die, without evidence of further programme contact; 260 (41.7%) restarted ART with further interruptions; and 164 (26.3%) restarted ART without further interruptions. An additional 24 (3.9%) restarted ART within 3 months prior to the end of follow-up and could not be assessed with respect to further TIs. Cox proportional hazards modelling Selleck CDK inhibitor indicated that male patients (AHR=1.39; 95% CI 1.10–1.76) and those who developed an AIDS-defining illness prior to their TI (AHR=1.54; 95% CI 1.14–2.09) were more likely to restart HAART. Higher CD4 cell counts at the time of TI (AHR=0.89; 95% CI 0.84–0.94) and unknown hepatitis C status (AHR=0.68; 95% CI 0.50–0.92) were associated with a reduced likelihood of restarting HAART (Table 3). Participants whose last regimen prior to the TI-included lopinavir (AHR=1.57; 95% CI 1.15–2.13) were more likely to restart HAART than those who were receiving NVP. Participants whose nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimens at the time of TI

were not 3TC/stavudine, 3TC/ZDV or abacavir (ABC)/3TC were less likely to restart HAART (AHR=0.63; 95% CI 0.43–0.93) in comparison to those receiving tenofovir/3TC. Participants who did not restart therapy were at higher risk of mortality in comparison to those who interrupted treatment for <230 days (the median duration of all TIs) (AHR=5.51; 95% CI 3.34–9.07) (Table 4). However, individuals who restarted therapy after a TI of more than 230 days were not at a significantly higher risk

of mortality (AHR=1.39; 95% CI 0.90–2.16) than those with shorter interruptions. In addition, mortality was associated with increasing age (AHR=1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.06), physician experience (AHR=0.81; 95% CI 0.67–0.97), CD4 cell count at the time of TI (AHR=0.75 per 100 cell increase; 95% CI 0.67–0.85) and either positive (AHR=2.10; 95% CI 1.19–3.71) or unknown hepatitis C antibody status (AHR=2.24; 95% CI 1.20–4.18). Participants who had a TI within the first 5-FU research buy year of HAART were at a greater risk of mortality than those who interrupted treatment later in the course of their therapy in univariate analyses, but not in multivariate models, even when duration of interruption was excluded (data not shown). Our results demonstrate that interruption of HAART treatment is a relatively common phenomenon in the BC DTP with nearly 40% of individuals having at least one TI in a median of 3.3 years of follow-up. Most participants with interruptions remained alive and eventually restarted HAART, although the majority of these individuals experienced further TIs. Individuals who had TIs were more likely to be female, less immunosuppressed and more likely to have a history of IDU.

8–10 The pathological processes of atherosclerosis

8–10 The pathological processes of atherosclerosis Selleckchem Inhibitor Library in those with and without diabetes are broadly similar, as are the main risk factors which include smoking, diabetes, increasing age, abnormal lipid profile, hypertension, and renal disease. Increasing HbA1c is associated with an increasing risk of PAD.11 All patients with PAD should therefore have their diabetes and hypertension well controlled, receive appropriate statin and antiplatelet therapy

unless contraindicated, and smoking should be discouraged. In diabetes patients with PAD there is a greater tendency for the below knee (‘tibial’ or ‘crural’) vessels to be diseased than in the non-diabetic population.12 This propensity for more distal disease influences the types of endovascular and surgical treatment required to revascularise a compromised limb. PAD can result in increased morbidity and impair quality of life through intermittent claudication, rest pain, lower limb ulceration,13 or amputation. The overall incidence Pirfenidone mw of amputations (minor or major) is significantly higher in those with diabetes (2.51 per 1000 person-years) than in those

without (0.11 per 1000 person-years).1 The term ‘critical limb ischaemia’ (CLI) is reserved for the most advanced form of PAD where limb viability is becoming threatened. The prevalence of CLI has been reported as 0.24% in an unselected population of 40–69 year olds, with diabetes increasing the risk.14 Survival in patients with CLI is poor, with one-year mortality rates being over 30% and approximately 25% of patients undergo major amputation within one year.15–17 There are a number of definitions and classifications of PAD available to define the presence and severity of disease5,18,19 but they are not used consistently in clinical practice.10 Formalising a precise and workable definition for CLI has been problematic. In simple terms, CLI is characterised by ‘chronic rest pain (over two weeks), tuclazepam or ulceration, and/or gangrene due to objectively proven arterial occlusive disease’.5 In an

attempt to identify those patients with true limb threatening ischaemia more precisely, ankle or toe arterial occlusion pressures were added to the diagnostic criteria for CLI. Examples of these are an occlusion pressure of 50mmHg at the ankle or 30mmHg at the toe, or in the presence of tissue loss higher levels of 70mmHg and 50mmHg respectively.5 Unfortunately, the problem with arterial occlusion pressure measurements is that not all patients with low ankle and/or toe pressures will end up with tissue loss, and some patients with higher pressures than these may develop tissue loss. The diabetes population may have artifactually elevated ankle pressures due to calcification of the vessel walls. This makes them incompressible for accurate arterial pressure measurement and hence the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) may be falsely elevated.

Distal leg epidermal nerve fibre density (ENFD) is a validated

Distal leg epidermal nerve fibre density (ENFD) is a validated

predictor of small unmyelinated nerve fibre damage and neuropathy risk in various diseases including HIV infection [2-4]. We determined ENFD in HIV-infected Thai individuals without signs or symptoms of neuropathy prior to the initiation of first-time ARV therapy to investigate which factors were associated with lower ENFD and therefore might increase neuropathy risk following initiation of d4T-containing regimens. SP600125 mouse In addition to epidemiological and HIV-specific factors such as CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA, we assessed mitochondrial parameters based on the known role of mitochondrial toxicity in the pathogenesis of neuropathy following the use of potentially neurotoxic NRTIs such as d4T. This analysis utilized baseline data on subjects who were enrolled in SEARCH (South East Asia Research Collaboration with Hawaii; 003, a 150-patient, 72-week,

two-site ARV clinical trial in ARV-naïve subjects conducted in Thailand at the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre (TRCARC) in Bangkok and at the Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital in Chonburi, Thailand ( selleck screening library identification NCT00669487). SEARCH 003 compared, in a randomized fashion, rates of anaemia, lipoatrophy and neuropathy among three ARV regimens differing by NRTI backbone. Specifically, a backbone of 24 weeks of stavudine (d4T) followed by a switch to zidovudine (ZDV) was compared with continuous ZDV and with continuous tenofovir (TDF) for Org 27569 the entire 72-week duration of the study. Skin punch biopsies

and ENFD assessments were performed as elective procedures at baseline, week 24 and week 72 to allow an in-depth evaluation of neuropathy risk during ARV therapy. The baseline ENFD and its relationship to various parameters prior to initiation of ARV therapy are the topics of this report. The SEARCH 003 study was approved by the Chulalongkorn University Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital IRB as primary IRBs of record and by the University of Hawaii Committee on Human Subjects and the University of California San Francisco Committee for Human Research as secondary IRBs. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Entry criteria included documented HIV infection, age ≥18 years, CD4 lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL and ARV-naïve status except for women with past exposure to ARV associated with pregnancy who were allowed to enroll as long as the exposure was at least 3 months prior to entry. The study utilized an entry criterion of CD4 lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL to be consistent with Thai national guidelines for initiation of ARV therapy.

Pharmacists acknowledged a need to be proactive and that potentia

Pharmacists acknowledged a need to be proactive and that potential opportunities afforded by the reforms could result in a more clinical role. Most however felt the reforms would have a negative impact on community pharmacy with lack of funding leading to reduced service provision. Many pharmacists believed patient care would improve as a result of increased competition and greater collaborative working, but some feared reduced services due to financial constraints would have a negative impact on patient access. Pharmacists

feared loss of services due to unfair service allocation and budgetary constraints. No reference was made to Local Authorities from whom public health services are commissioned, nor were opportunities for engagement such as Local Professional Target Selective Inhibitor Library Networks mentioned. Further support and greater awareness of the available opportunities are needed at grass roots level by Local Practice Forums to encourage pharmacists check details to engage and thrive in the restructured NHS. A. Fraser, J. Miller, N. Downes, L. Henderson, D. Thomson NHSGG&C,

Glasgow, UK Aim to quantify the volume and cost of dispensed medicines returned from care homes to highlight any potential reduction of inappropriate prescribing. The medicines most frequently returned were Central Nervous System drugs, especially analgesics. Cost savings can be achieved by reducing inappropriate returns through audit and training on targeted intervention. A report published by York Health Economics Consortium and The School of Pharmacy, University of London in 2009 1 estimated that £50 million worth of NHS supplied medicines are disposed of unused by care homes. Local estimates equated savings at approximately £125 per patient per annum. In XXXX, with approximately 8,500 older people care home beds, this equates to about £1 million old of pharmaceutical waste per annum. In 2012

a service evaluation was conducted by Community Pharmacy Clinical Governance and Audit Facilitators (CPCGAF) and Prescribing Support Technicians (PST) in 4 care homes to: identify the quantity and value of medicines returned for destruction. capture details of the reason provided for return. identify areas where inappropriate returns could be reduced. CPCGAF collected and analysed data from participating care homes on all medicines returned to their supplying community pharmacy. The selection criteria for care homes were their medical service was provided by the board’s nursing home medical practice and evidence of a high level of returns. This was submitted on electronic data collection forms in Excel® format. After the first data collection, a PST delivered a presentation on local medicine management processes and the individualised results from the evaluation of returned waste. This tailored training encouraged discussion which facilitated care home staff to implement changes to their processes and address any issues identified.

We included a covariable for the duration of the smoking cessatio

We included a covariable for the duration of the smoking cessation intervention at the Zurich centre. This variable was set to 0 for all settings and years except for the Zurich centre, where it was assigned values of 1, 2 and 3 for the intervention years Bleomycin in vivo 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The completion of checklists was

stopped in December 2009 but the regular training was maintained. We therefore hypothesized that the positive effects would continue for some time. Because differences in patient characteristics between the different settings could potentially contribute to the effect observed, we fitted a second multivariable model with additional covariables: sex, age (grouped as <30, 30–49 and ≥50 years), HIV transmission category [with injecting drug users (IDUs) separated into former and current IDUs], occurrence of a cardiovascular event in the previous 2 years, and current psychiatric treatment or depression. Because Framingham risk scores are only defined for individuals aged 30–74 years, and collection of information on alcohol use was not started

before 2005 in the SHCS, the sensitivity analysis (model 3) could only be performed on a subset of participants aged 30–74 years with information on alcohol use. We used the upper quartiles of the 10-year risks for CVD, CHD and MI as covariables. As Framingham scores incorporate information on current smoking, we lagged these scores by 6 months to avoid reverse causality with our outcome of interest. Analyses were performed Obeticholic Acid supplier using R (version 2.10.1, 14.12.2009; The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) [28] and Stata software (version 11.2; StataCorp, College Station, TX). A total of 11 056 SHCS participants with available smoking information had 121 238 follow-up

visits and 64 118 person-years of follow-up between April 2000 and December 2010, and contributed to the smoking prevalence analyses (Fig. 1). During the intervention at the Zurich centre from November 2007 to December 2009, 1689 participants were seen at this centre. The effect of the intervention was assessed in a smoking cessation analysis among 5805 smokers with at least three follow-up visits, and in a relapse analysis among 1953 participants who had stopped smoking over at least two Phospholipase D1 consecutive semi-annual visits. Participants at the Zurich centre were around 6 years older than those in other settings (Table 1), and were less likely to be alcohol abstinent (36% vs. 55% in other centres, and 50% in private care). Private physicians tended to care for more men who have sex with men (50% vs. 42% at the Zurich centre, and 26% in other centres), and for those with less advanced HIV disease [20% in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C vs. 24% at the Zurich centre, and 28% in other centres].

, 2009), and high levels of ABA have

been shown to alter

, 2009), and high levels of ABA have

been shown to alter plant susceptibility to infection (de Torres-Zabala et al., 2007; Goel et al., 2008). It has been shown in some interactions that the bacterium itself produces ROS that contribute to pathogenicity. For example, Mahajan-Miklos et al. (1999) identified a gene in the opportunistic pathogen, P. aeruginosa PA14, which is essential for fast killing of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and is also involved in pathogenicity on Arabidopsis. This gene encodes a phenazine toxin, pyocyanin, which leads to the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide under aerobic conditions (Mahajan-Miklos et al., 1999). The authors were able to provide evidence that Talazoparib purchase ROS production was important find more for the pathogenicity effect. More recently, it has been shown that pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa directly inactivates catalase in the human lung epithelium via superoxide production (O’Malley et al., 2003) and that the ROS produced by pyocyanin in human cells can inactivate vacuolar ATPase (Ran et al., 2003). Given the overlap between genes involved in pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa on Arabidopsis and other hosts (Mahajan-Miklos et al., 1999), it seems likely that similar mechanisms may also be important in planta. It is clear that ROS play a key role in plant–pathogen interactions; they are used by plants as a weapon against pathogens

via direct toxicity and are important effectors in bacterial cell death mechanisms. Successful pathogens must therefore be able to tolerate this threat. But plants also use ROS in signalling, which bacteria may be able to manipulate for their own Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) ends or to downregulate to avoid further defence responses. In a final twist, it appears that some Pseudomonas pathogens may even use

ROS as a pathogenicity or virulence factor during interactions with plants. A summary of the ways in which various groups of Pseudomonads interact with ROS is given in Table 1. Further work is needed to fully illuminate a number of the areas covered in this review. For instance, the role of PHAs in ROS tolerance remains opaque. Similarly, more insight could be sought into the ways in which plant pathogenic Pseudomonads manipulate plant ROS homeostasis, and the importance of this manipulation for pathogenesis. There is yet to be a full understanding of the consequences of the changes observed in infected plants in this complex and dynamic process. Recent developments such as the demonstration of the connection between HopG1a and ROS production indicate the potential for research in this area to improve our understanding of plant–pathogen interactions. “
“We present draft genome sequences of three Holospora species, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium caudatum; that is, the macronucleus-specific H. obtusa and the micronucleus-specific H. undulata and H. elegans.