Table 3 summarizes what we consider to be the research priorities to further implement Article 8. Table Volasertib solubility 3. Article 8 Research Priorities Evaluation and Enforcement Evaluation and enforcement of smoke-free environments has been centered on SHS exposure markers. However, as smoke-free environments spread to multiunit housing and private enclosed spaces, new technologies that should allow monitoring enforcement without invading subjects�� privacy will emerge. Exposure in multiunit housing, in particular those of low socioeconomic status, has been shown to be a problem that needs to be urgently addressed (King et al., 2010; Kraev et al., 2009; Wilson, Klein, Blumkin, Gottlieb, & Winickoff, 2011). Even though it has been shown that most parents agree having their children tested for SHS exposure at home (Winickoff et al.
, 2011), the best assessment method is yet to be determined. In this regard, nanotechnology might be a promising tool in developing new SHS exposure assessment technology. These technologies will need to be cost-effective as most likely resource-limited countries will be the ones requiring enforcement monitoring. Displacement of SHS exposure from the workplace to the household has been an argument frequently made by the tobacco industry, in particular, that this would result in higher childhood exposure. Even though there is some evidence suggesting that children��s exposure at home has increased (using questionnaire data; Ho et al., 2010), most results (including those using biomarkers) have proven otherwise (Akhtar, Currie, Currie, & Haw, 2007; Holliday, Moore, & Moore, 2009; Hyland et al.
, 2009). For those countries pending smoke-free legislation implementation, collecting data on household exposure to compare before and after implementation would be useful to garner additional support for smoke-free workplaces and households. Furthermore, GSK-3 these data would allow comparing the effects on household exposure in countries with different smoking prevalence. Short-Term and Long-Term Health Benefits of Smoke-Free Environments As described above, the short- and long-term health benefits of smoke-free environments are well documented. Heart disease and lung cancer have been the central research topic. This, in part driven by the rapid and large increased risk observed with SHS exposure, has allowed ecological analysis to find a beneficial effect over these diseases. However, as time since implementation grows, research will be able to evaluate the impact of smoke-free legislations on SHS-caused diseases that are less common and are with lower associated risk (e.g., bladder cancer, spontaneous abortion) compared with heart disease and lung cancer.