Finally, we performed sensitivity analyses to examine (a) potential confounding by negative selleck Pazopanib affect; (b) effect modification by age, gender, income, and education; and (c) the sensitivity of the ��high stress�� threshold used in models that examined the number of ��high�� stress domains. Results Table 1 presents descriptive statistics for the full sample and stratified by smoking status. More than one quarter (27.53%) of the participants was current smokers, while 22.70% were previous smokers, and 44.76% had never been regular smokers. Smoking status was significantly related to nearly every demographic characteristic considered. For example, males and younger participants (<55 years) were disproportionately more likely to be current smokers compared with females and older participants, respectively.
Smoking status was also patterned by socioeconomic position; current smokers included a disproportionate number of participants with lower education and income levels relative to the distribution of the full sample. In addition, smoking status was related to high stressor exposure across multiple domains: 30% of current smokers scored high on five or more stressor domains, while only 11% of never-smokers and 17% of previous smokers had scores in the top quartile on five or more stressor domains. Table 1. Smoking Status by Demographic Characteristics, Midlife in the United States Milwaukee Sample (N = 592) Table 2 shows the correlations among stressor domains. The majority of the 11 domains were positively correlated (42 of 55 coefficients), with significant positive correlation coefficients ranging from 0.
10 to 0.39. There was one significant inverse correlation (physical work stress and financial stress, r = ?.09, p < .05). Table 2. Correlations Between Psychosocial Stressor Domains Table 3 presents ORs according to smoking status; never-smokers were used as the reference group. Higher levels of psychological work stress, perceived inequality, relationship stress, neighborhood stress, financial stress, stressful events in adulthood, childhood adversity, and the cumulative stress score were associated with higher odds of being a current smoker versus a never-smoker (Panel A). The magnitude of significant associations ranged from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04�C1.57) for childhood adversity to 1.77 (95% CI: 1.41�C2.
22) for relationship stress, and the cumulative stress score had the largest association (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.47�C2.35). Higher levels of psychological work stress, stressful events in adulthood, childhood adversity, and the cumulative stress score Cilengitide (ORs ranged from 1.30 to 1.45) were associated with higher odds of being a previous smoker versus a never-smoker. Respondents reporting higher work�Cfamily conflict were less likely to be previous smokers (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67�C0.98) than never-smokers.