, 2008), providing additional helmsman training (as Helmsman’s th

, 2008), providing additional helmsman training (as Helmsman’s throttle and steering control has a significant effect on the motion Nieuwenhuis, 2005, Coats and Stark, 2008 and Townsend et al., 2008) and/or fitting suspensions seats. Anecdotal evidence suggests that suspension seats restrict crew movement, add weight and reduce craft feedback (which could lead to boat mistreatment, damage or dangerous driving). To the

authors’ knowledge no ride control systems for small high speed craft Proteasome inhibitor are commercially available. Furthermore, speed restrictions are not considered a realistic option for military and some rescue applications. While Helmsmen’s throttle/steering control is not infallible, particularly during night-time transits. In an attempt to address the issues of WBV and repeated shock for high speed craft operations, this paper examines the motion mitigation provided by various ‘flexible’ hull systems during a slam event. Such systems by reducing the impact on the entire craft could reduce the structural strength requirements and therefore vessel mass and cost. In addition to reducing the need for isolation mountings for sensitive, e.g., electronic,

equipment. As an initial appraisal of flexible hull design, the interaction between a high speed craft hull, seat and human occupant was modelled as a forced, multiple-spring–mass–damper-system as depicted in Fig. 2. The equations of motion describing Fig. 2 were modelled as equation(1) click here F1F2F3=m1000m2000m3x¨1x¨2x¨3+c1+c2−c20−c2c2+c3−c30−c3c3x˙1x˙2x˙3+k1+k2−k20−k2k2+k3−k30−k3k3x1x2x3where the subscripts 1, 2, 3 refer to the hull, seat and

human components respectively and m, c and k represent the system mass, damping and restoring coefficients respectively. The human body and seat model were based on the mass, damping and stiffness coefficients presented in Coe (2011) and Coe et al. (2009) respectively. The seat representing a typical suspension seat, e.g., a STIDD suspension seat. In this study, the hull mass (m1) was assumed constant and the damping (c1) and stiffness (k1) coefficients were varied. F2 and F3 Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase were assumed zero. To represent a slam event F  1 was modelled as a symmetrical, smooth impulse force; equation(2) F=−Fae−(t−tp)2/2σ2F=−Fae−(t−tp)2/2σ2where F  a, the forcing amplitude was calculated as the hull mass multiplied by 50 m/s2, a typical slam acceleration ( Townsend, 2008). t   and t  p represent the time and the time at which the peak force occurs and σ2σ2, a constant proportional to the impulse force duration, was assumed to be 0.0001. The motion responses, modelled in MATLAB based on the fourth order Runge–Kutta integration scheme, are presented in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. For the given parameters, the simplified model shows that hull stiffness has a negligible effect on the motion response of a seated human.

By means of the first generated pattern no novel sequences were r

By means of the first generated pattern no novel sequences were retrieved by regular expression search. This first attempt failed due to the high pattern specificity, since it was constructed based on only eight sequences. Therefore, a more generalized pattern was needed, in order to find the

uncharacterized hevein-like peptides precursors in NR. Among the five originally identified precursors, three of them (CBI18789 from V. vinifera, EEE61250 from O. sativa and XP_002962191 from S. moellendorffii) have sequences larger than the hevein domain. This feature had already been observed for the Rapamycin hevein-like precursors of Ac-AMP2 [9], Ar-AMP [37] and WAMP-1 [3]. In fact, these sequences after the hevein domain are propeptides and are posteriorly cleaved, leaving the mature peptide. In the case of hevein-like peptides,

the propeptides could be related to the evolution process which originated this class. Andreev et al. [3] have proposed that the WAMP-1 peptide emerges from a deletion of the catalytic domain of a chimerolectin (class I chitinase from plants). These three peptides with sequences after the hevein domain also show similarities to chimerolectins (data not shown), indicating that these sequences may be originated from a similar evolutionary process of WAMP-1. There are two other hypotheses involving the evolution of lectins with the hevein domain, which propose duplication BMS-354825 chemical structure or transposition of hevein domains, contrasting with Andreev et al. [3]. Wright et al. [62] have proposed that the consecutive duplication of hevein domains in the same gene generated the hololectins, and Shinshi et al. [50] have suggested that the transposition of an hevein domain into the gene of a chitinase generated the chimerolectins. Presumably, these sequences

after the hevein domain are remnants of the evolutionary process. In CBI18789 (V. vinifera), this sequence corresponds to a short hydrophobic tail. This tail does not generate great changes in structure and, probably, neither in protein function. In fact a transition next of coil-to-β-sheet was observed in MD, however, without influences in the binding to (GlcNAc)3 (data not shown). In addition, there is no clear evidence that this tail is cleaved. Similarly, XP_002962191 from S. moellendorffii also shows an additional sequence after the hevein domain. Nonetheless, it is longer than CBI18789′s tail and, in this case, there may be a structural or functional change if it is not cleaved. Hence, it was removed from the analysis, since clear evidence of cleavage was not observed. In contrast, EEE61250 (O. sativa) has a similar cleavage site to Ac-AMP2 and Ar-AMP, indicating that the additional sequence may be a propeptide. In this last case, besides the cleavage site, these sequences also share the same number of cysteine residues. The other two retrieved sequences have only the signal peptide and the hevein domain, without additional sequences after the hevein domain.

In addition, various authors list other factors which produce, or

In addition, various authors list other factors which produce, or contribute to, sea level changes: water Erlotinib exchange between the Baltic and the North Sea, riverine discharges into the Baltic, seasonal changes in water density, atmospheric precipitation and evaporation, and seiches (Heyenet al. 1996, Samuelsson & Stigebrandt 1996, Carlsson 1998). On the other hand, tidal effects are irrelevant for sea level changes in the Baltic (Suurssar et al. 2003, 2006, Jasińska & Massel 2007). A particular type of sea level

change is a storm surge. Storm surges and falls are defined as short-term, extreme variations in the sea level. Short-term variations are changes of the sea level recorded within several minutes to a few days. They include sea level oscillations intermediate between wind-generated waves and seasonal sea level changes. The coastal protection services describe a storm surge as a dynamic rise MK0683 in vivo of the sea level above the alarm or warning level, induced by the action of wind and atmospheric pressure on the sea surface. Storm surges have always been of interest to chroniclers and scientists. Therefore, their descriptions, both historical and recent, are numerous. The history of the Baltic Sea and old chronicles of major Pomeranian towns are a treasure trove of information on the type

and effects of disastrous surges. The maximum sea levels during storm surges that caused heavy flooding used to be denoted by the high-water marks painted on old buildings or other objects. The most distinct evidence of storms and disastrous 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase wave activity is visible in the church at Trzęsacz. When built in 1250, the church stood in the middle

of the village, 700 m away from the Baltic shore. By 1868, the church found itself on the edge of a cliff, and after 1900 it gradually began to disappear into the sea. What remains today is a single wall, protected from further destruction by heavy seas. Of all the Polish coastal stations, Kołobrzeg was the site of the absolutely highest sea level (2.22 m above the Normal Null, N.N.), recorded on 13 November 1872. That storm surge was observed in numerous ports of the western Baltic coast where the water rose by as much as 3 m above the mean level. Storms and the associated surges have been described and analysed in numerous publications; the most comprehensive descriptions in the Polish literature are those of Majewski et al. (1983), Majewski (1986, 1989, 1997, a,1998b), Sztobryn et al. (2005, 2009) and Wiśniewski & Wolski (2009). These publications and annual records have served as a basis for a summary of historical data on extreme sea levels along the Polish coast (Table 1). Nineteenth-century and earlier descriptions of floods are mainly of historical importance.

2009, Savchuk & Wulff 2009, Müller-Karulis & Aigars 2011) Althou

2009, Savchuk & Wulff 2009, Müller-Karulis & Aigars 2011). Although the correlation and variance between the simulated and observed NOx− fluxes is not as good as for PO43− and NH4+ ( Table 1), the simulations nonetheless agree reasonably well with observations. The experimental data used for the sediment model calibration and denitrification measurement results in the Gulf of Riga indicate that a substantial part of denitrification is provided by the diffusion of nitrate from the water column into the Selleck LY2109761 bottom sediments. To accommodate this pathway, the parameterisation

of denitrification in the biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Riga has been modified and is described in detail in Appendix A. Denitrification in the Gulf of Riga based on the previous version of the denitrification model (Müller-Karulis & Aigars 2011) indicates average denitrification rates of 0.90 mmol N m−2 d−1 for the period 1973–2000, which agree well with the results of this study. Furthermore, the average denitrification rates simulated in this study are in the same range as the rates reported for other areas of the Baltic Sea (e.g. GSK126 chemical structure Deutsch et al. 2010). This indicates that the improved denitrification model enables

the mass balance and the results of its new parameters – nitrate diffusion and both denitrification pathways – to be estimated accurately. The denitrification sustained until by the nitrate flux from the overlying water of the sediments is about 0.99 mmol N m−2 d−1 at an O2 concentration of 1 mg l−1 (Figure 6). The simulated nitrogen flux shows that denitrification from water switches to coupled nitrification – denitrification at an oxygen concentration of 5 mg l−1, when nitrification starts generating enough nitrate for denitrification, sustaining a maximum denitrification rate of 0.49 mmol N m−2 d−1. Such conditions at the sediment-water interface can be observed in winter and early spring. Coupled nitrification

– denitrification then removes up to 65% of NOx− generated by nitrification. This amount of denitrified NOx is in agreement with the model results obtained by Kiirikki et al. (2006), which indicate that coupled nitrification – denitrification is mostly a seasonal process that occurs under oxygenated conditions. The improved sediment sub-model presented in this paper can be implemented in the biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Riga. Its simulated nutrient fluxes show good agreement with the observed experimental results, and it is capable of simulating nitrogen transformation fluxes that concur with observations from the Gulf of Riga and other Baltic Sea areas.

There were a handful of articles (6) reporting on studies investi

There were a handful of articles (6) reporting on studies investigating the fidelity of lay counselling

in routine care [26], [35], [36], [37] and [38]. There were three articles reporting on studies which reviewed existing services provided by lay counsellors [33], [39] and [40], two which focused on exploring the impact of organizational issues on the functioning learn more of lay counsellors [41] and [42] and one assessing the reliability of using lay counsellors to administer mental health screening [43]. A number of studies evaluated the outcomes of using lay counsellors to provide risk reduction counselling. These include five randomized control trials (RCTs) [44], [45], [46], [47] and [48] and two feasibility cohort studies [49] and [50]. These studies provide evidence that under controlled conditions

with adequate training and supervision, lay counsellor behaviour change counselling interventions using various adaptions of the information- motivation-behavioural skills (IMB) model can reduce HIV-risk behaviours including unprotected sex [44] and [48][45], [46], [47] and [49] alcohol use before sex [45], [49] and [50], number of sexual partners [45], [47], [49] and [50]; and transactional sex [50]. These studies covered high HIV risk groups (e.g., STI Clinics and shebeens/taverns) CHIR-99021 cost [44], [45], [46] and [47] as well as in HIV infected [48] and [49] and uninfected patients attending HCT sites [50]. There was one multi-centre cohort study of a community adherence support programme provided by patient advocates which showed improved adherence Dichloromethane dehalogenase in those receiving the intervention [51]. No effectiveness trials of lay counsellor delivered behaviour change counselling offered as part of routine counselling on reduced risk behaviour or improved adherence could be found. There was one non-randomized control study which investigated the use of lay counsellors to deliver a group-based psychosocial intervention using the principles of Interpersonal Therapy which demonstrated promising findings and was well received by the participants [52]. A number of studies

showed the fidelity of lay counsellor interventions delivered under routine circumstances to be sub-optimal. Two studies found that lay counsellors trained in a client centred non-directive approach did not adhere to this approach, with counselling provided characterized by advice giving, directiveness, control and confrontation [37] and [38]. Four studies of counsellors trained in motivational interviewing found low fidelity to the model when incorporated into routine care [26], [35], [36] and [53], with the majority of lay counsellors not able to achieve entry level MI competency following training and at one year follow-up [26]. Two studies noted wide variation in the training of lay counsellors [32] and [39], largely provided by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

2008) Since then, the species has managed to colonise not only t

2008). Since then, the species has managed to colonise not only the Gulf of Finland but also waters farther west (the Gulf of Riga). Its abundance has been gradually increasing – ca ten-fold in six years. The maximum abundance was observed in 2004 (157 indiv. m− 3) ( Rodionova & Panov 2006), and in 2006 it was 120 indiv. m− 3 ( Põllupüü et al. 2008).

The selleck inhibitor results of the present study demonstrate the further expansion of E. anonyx. This Ponto-Caspian species was found in the Gulf of Gdańsk for the first time in July 2006. It was observed in the eastern and western Gulf of Gdańsk down to a maximum depth of 20 m until the second half of August in rather low densities, not exceeding 2 and 6 indiv. m− 3 in July and August respectively. A similarly low abundance, less than 1 indiv. m− 3, and the occurrence of the species in shallow waters was recorded at the beginning of the invasion of E. anonyx in the

Gulf of Finland ( Rodionova and Panov, 2006 and Põllupüü et al., 2008). We consider it probable that a period of seven years elapsed between the first record of E. anonyx in the Baltic Sea and the first one in the Gulf of Gdańsk. This is the same period of time as in the case Thiazovivin molecular weight of the expansion of another cladoceran alien to the Baltic Sea, Cercopagis pengoi, which appeared for the first time in the Gulf of Riga in 1992 ( Ojaveer & Lumberg 1995) and in the Gulf of Gdańsk in 1999 ( Bielecka et al., 2000 and Duriš et al., 2000). In addition, at the beginning of its expansion into the Gulf of Gdańsk the E. anonyx population seemed to be Elongation factor 2 kinase rather unevenly distributed – it was not recorded at three stations: So2, K2 and K4. A similar trend was observed in the case of C. pengoi – initially the species was recorded rather irregularly (Bielecka & Mudrak 2000). In the eastern Baltic Sea E. anonyx is most abundant in summer, in June and July ( Rodionova and Panov, 2006 and Põllupüü et al., 2008). Generally, E. anonyx was recorded in the eastern Gulf of Finland at a water temperature of 11–24.5° C and a salinity of 1–3

PSU, with the first specimens appearing at 17–18° C ( Rodionova & Panov 2006). However, other results were obtained by Põllupüü et al. (2008), who investigated a larger part of the Gulf of Finland (Tallinn Bay and Narva Bay) and the Gulf of Riga (Pärnu Bay). These authors found that E. anonyx was constantly present in the plankton when the water temperature reached 15 °C, with its maximum density being recorded at 16–20° C and 12–13 PSU ( Põllupüü et al. 2008). In the Gulf of Gdańsk E. anonyx was observed somewhat later in the year. It appeared at the beginning of July when the water temperature was 11.4–23.6 °C and was present for a shorter period of time – only a month and a half. Its abundance was correlated positively with water temperature. The ranges of water temperature and salinity during the occurrence of this cladoceran were 4.2–23.6° C and 4.6–7.5 PSU respectively.

The estimated errors of approximation are given in Table 1 The b

The estimated errors of approximation are given in Table 1. The broad range of concentrations of the optically active components (OACs) contained in the

waters of the investigated lakes (e.g. chlorophyll a concentration Ca from ca 1 mg m−3 to 336 mg m−3) enables the influence of each group of these OACs on the reflectance spectra Rrs(λ) of these waters to be established. Three types of reflectance spectra with quite different shapes and values were distinguished. The first one, for waters with intermediate (or low) concentrations of all three OACs, has a conspicuous, broad peak in the 560–580 nm band (with maximum values of Rrs very much less than 0.01 sr−1), and two very weak, scarcely discernible peaks in the longwave bands. These type I spectra Rrs(λ) of the lake waters resemble those commonly observed for the Baltic Proper. The second type, for lake waters with very high CDOM concentrations www.selleckchem.com/products/bmn-673.html (aCDOM(440 nm)> 10 m−1), has very low reflectance values (Rrs < 0.001 sr−1) over the entire spectral range, with two visible click here reflectance spectra peaks: a very weak one at ca 650 and a somewhat stronger one at 690–710 nm. The third type of spectrum Rrs(λ), for lake

waters with low CDOM concentrations (aCDOM(440 nm)< 5 m−1) and high chlorophyll a levels (Ca > 4 mg m−3, up to 336 mg m−3) exhibits three peaks (Rrs > 0.005 sr−1): a broad one at 560–580 nm, a smaller one at ca 650 nm and a well-pronounced one at 690–720 nm. The correlations of the relevant spectral reflectance bands with the chlorophyll a concentration and with the total SPM concentration for the lake waters have high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.95 and 0.90 respectively. The correlation of the coloured dissolved organic matter absorption coefficient aCDOM(440 nm) with the spectral reflectance band ratio Rrs(570)/Rrs(655) is somewhat weaker, with a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.85. As expected, the errors in determining optically active components (OAC) with the new equations are also quite satisfactory. The standard error factors are as follows: for the estimated chlorophyll a

concentration x = 1.36, for the estimated total SPM concentration x = 1.56 and for the estimated coloured dissolved organic matter absorption coefficient x = 1.46. Oxymatrine
“The high phytoplankton productivity in the Baltic (Hagström et al. 2001) makes it a key area on the European shelf as regards atmospheric CO2 uptake (Thomas et al. 2003, 2005). Since particulate organic matter (POM) is a carrier of carbon to the sediments, it plays an important role in the biological pump mechanism (e.g. Pempkowiak et al. 1984, Chisholm 2000, Turnewitsch et al. 2007). The measure of particulate organic matter is particulate organic carbon (POC). POC concentrations depend on the equilibrium between the sources and sinks of organic substances.

However, gene expression profiling showed that it expressed both

However, gene expression profiling showed that it expressed both epithelial and melanocytic markers, and as such, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) now considers it to be a melanoma cell line (Garraway et al., 2005). Regardless of its origin, the MDA-MB-435 cell line is an aggressive cell line that can be used as a model to study invasion in vitro ( Hulit et al., 2007). Biflorin has been shown to be cytotoxic to cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo ( Vasconcellos et al., 2005, Vasconcellos et al., 2007, Vasconcellos et al., 2011 and Vasconcellos et al., 2010). Recently, Vasconcellos et al. (2011) described that biflorin inhibits several

melanoma cell lines in vitro. Moreover, biflorin inhibited DNA synthesis, leading to the apoptosis of B16, a murine melanoma cell line ( Vasconcellos et al., 2011). Biflorin BIBW2992 research buy also increased survival rates and inhibited tumor Tanespimycin solubility dmso growth in an in vivo melanoma B16 model ( Vasconcellos et al., 2011). These results supported gaining an understanding of the mechanisms behind biflorin activity in cancer cells. Here, we described that biflorin inhibits MDA-MB-435 cell

invasion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The MDA-MB-435 cell line expresses genes associated with both breast cancer and melanoma. For this reason, the authors conducted the experiments on normal cell lines of both breast and melanocyteorigin, MCF-10A and Melan-A, respectively. However, at all concentrations tested, biflorin MG-132 cost had no effect on the normal cell lines. Vasconcellos et al. (2010) demonstrated that at lower concentrations, biflorin hadsignificant antioxidant and protective effects against cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and intracellular lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 in yeast and normal mammalian cells. This result could be attributed to its hydroxyl radical-scavenging property and corroborated our findings. However, at higher concentrations, biflorin was cytotoxic and genotoxic. Many changes in gene expression and protein

functions occur during tumor progression. Alterations in cell–cell and cell-matrix adhesion seem to have a central role in facilitating the migration, invasion and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells (Yilmaz and Christofori, 2010). Multiple cell adhesion molecules, such as E- and N-cadherin, which are calcium-dependent cells adhesion molecules that mediate homophilic cell–cell adhesion, have been reported to play roles in melanoma progression. The cadherin switch from E-cadherin to N-cadherin results in the disassociation of melanoma cells and promotes the invasion of melanoma cells (Hsu et al., 2000). The pro-invasive action of N-cadherin persisted even in the presence of E-cadherin, suggesting that N-cadherin has a dominant effect over the normally tumor-suppressive E-cadherin, (Nieman et al., 1999 and Hazan et al., 2000).

However, further analysis revealed that, although the vast majori

However, further analysis revealed that, although the vast majority of TCR/pMHC complexes crystallized within the remit of these conditions, a number of structures crystallized in conditions outside of this range (Fig. 4). Thus, although it could be tempting to limit the number of conditions in a protein crystal screen to improve efficiency and reduce protein consumption, selleck broader screens are required to ensure that crystallization conditions are not missed for important proteins. The ability of T cells to respond to antigen depends on the productive

interaction between the TCR and pMHC. The crystal structures of a number of TCR/pMHC complexes have been solved and show that the TCR has a relatively conserved mode of binding to pMHC in which the selleck chemicals llc TCR lines up approximately diagonally to the MHC peptide binding groove, with the TCR α

chain contacting the MHC α2 domain and the TCR β chain contacting the MHC α1 domain. The antigen specific portion of the TCR/pMHC interaction occurs between the pMHC surface and the TCR complementarity determining region loops (CDR-loops) (Rudolph et al., 2006). These CDR-loops serve different roles during TCR binding to pMHC: the variable (V)-gene encoded CDR2-loops contact mainly the conserved helical region of the MHC surface, the V-gene encoded CDR1-loops can contact both the MHC and the peptide and the more variable somatically rearranged CDR3-loops contact mainly the antigenic peptide. Although the general features of TCR/pMHC binding have been defined, there remains a number of conflicting models that describe the structural basis of T cell MHC-restriction, cross-reactivity, autoimmunity and alloreactivity. Furthermore, each previous TCR/pMHC complex has been governed by a unique set of contacts that enable T cell antigen recognition. Thus, there is still a pressing need to increase the number of TCR/pMHC complex structures in the literature in order to: (1) determine an accepted set of rules

Cediranib (AZD2171) that describe the generalities of T cell specificity, and (2) understand the unique features of individual TCR/pMHC interactions that allow T cells to target different disease epitopes. The study of TCR/pMHC complexes has been limited by the challenges in expression, purification and successful crystallization of these soluble proteins. Here, we report a new systematic and directed approach for the design of a TCR/pMHC Optimized Protein crystallization Screen (TOPS) that has proved to be useful for the crystallization of this family of immuno-proteins. With this novel crystallization screen, we have successfully generated the majority of our current portfolio of structures that includes 21 TCR/pMHC complexes (13 derived from a common parent complex), 3 TCRs and 8 pMHCs. We found that TCR/pMHC complex crystals most commonly formed at a neutral pH, with 15%–20% of PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium sulfate.

Research on SI is at an early stage, and to the authors’ knowledg

Research on SI is at an early stage, and to the authors’ knowledge no previous studies have systematically explored what resolution is required to resolve it in ocean models. As computational power increases, models are able to simultaneously selleck products resolve a richer set of dynamics by running at higher spatial resolution and incorporating more complex physical and biogeochemical parameterizations. However, higher spatial resolution introduces a new set of challenges as well, the first among

these being the issue of double-counting (Delworth et al., 2012). It is commonly thought that as models enter an “eddy-permitting” regime, where some (but not all) of the mesoscale eddies are explicitly resolved, parameterizations

should either be turned off or minimized in order to prevent both resolving and parameterizing the same eddies. One reason for this is that parameterizations can out-compete the resolved eddies for the energy sources required to grow, leaving the resolved eddies weak and ineffectual (Henning and Vallis, 2004). Therefore, one of the first steps to developing a skillful parameterization is to know when its use is appropriate, and when it should be turned off to avoid double-counting. The E7080 solubility dmso issue of double-counting is not confined to just mesoscale eddies, however. Submesoscales develop at scales less than 10 km,

and these in turn will become partially resolved as GCM resolution becomes even finer in upcoming model generations. SI is one such submesoscale process, and ocean models will increasingly pass into a regime that could be described as “SI-permitting”. As is the case with mesoscale eddies, explicitly resolving only some of the SI modes can be expected to present a challenge in preventing double-counting by a parameterization. As of the writing of this paper no parameterization exists for SI in the oceanic mixed layer, and any forthcoming attempt at one will require knowledge of how SI next behaves when it is partially resolved. Symmetric instability in a stably stratified flow occurs when the Ertel PV takes on the opposite sign of f ( Hoskins, 1974). Fronts in the surface mixed layer of the ocean feature strong lateral density gradients, which in conjunction with wind forcing and/or buoyancy fluxes create conditions favorable to the development of SI ( Thomas and Taylor, 2010). SI is capable of restratifying the mixed layer on timescales shorter than that of baroclinic instability ( Haine and Marshall, 1998, Boccaletti et al., 2007 and Li et al., 2012), and both types of instability are central to setting the stratification of the surface ocean at strong fronts.